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Algorithm that predicts viral etiology of diarrhea may curb inappropriate antibiotic use

Use of an algorithm-based tool to determine the likelihood of viral etiology for acute diarrhea in children did not significantly reduce antibiotic prescriptions in developing countries, according to a study in JAMA Pediatrics.
However, as the algorithm-predicted probability of viral diarrhea increased, physicians did prescribe fewer antibiotics, researchers reported in a post hoc analysis.
According to a related press release, most children with diarrhea in developing nations receive antibiotics. “That means the vast majority of cases are treated inappropriately,” study author Eric

Rituximab reduced risk for disease worsening in generalized myasthenia gravis

A single, 500 mg dose of rituximab was associated with greater probability of minimal myasthenia gravis manifestations and reduced the need for rescue medications compared with placebo, researchers reported in JAMA Neurology.
Although severity of myasthenia gravis varies, it is well-known that in patients with general symptoms, many experience substantial morbidity and life-threatening events, Fredrik Piehl, MD, PhD, professor of neurology at Karolinska Institute in Sweden, and colleagues wrote.
Seeking to assess the efficacy and safety of rituximab compared with placebo as an add-on to

FDA approves drop to lower IOP in patients with glaucoma

Santen and UBE announced the FDA approval of Omlonti for the reduction of elevated IOP in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
The FDA granted the approval on Sept. 22, according to the agency’s website.
Omlonti (omidenepag isopropyl ophthalmic solution 0.002%) was jointly developed by Santen and UBE, according to a press release from Santen. The active ingredient, omidenepag isopropyl, which was developed by UBE, is a relatively selective prostaglandin EP2 receptor agonist that increases aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular and uveoscleral outflow

Multimorbidity associated with increased risk for dementia

Multimorbidity was associated with a 63% increased risk for incident dementia, with the greatest risk linked to hypertension and diabetes, researchers reported in JAMA Network Open.
The global prevalence of dementia is projected to increase from 57 million to 153 million individuals by 2050 — a threefold increase, Catherine M. Calvin, PhD, of the department of population health at Oxford University, and colleagues wrote.
Calvin and colleagues conducted a population-based, prospective cohort study to assess whether multimorbidity was associated with incident dementia and whether

Positive results shown in ongoing phase 2 trial of cannabinoid intoxication treatment

A biopharmaceutical company has announced positive interim data from the first two cohorts in an ongoing phase 2 clinical trial of its treatment for acute cannabinoid intoxication.
According to a release from Anebulo Pharmaceuticals, ANEB-001 is an orally bioavailable, rapidly absorbed, small molecule cannabinoid receptor antagonist that aims to address the unmet medical need for a specific antidote for acute cannabinoid intoxication (ACI).
In the current study, conducted in healthy adult occasional cannabis users at the Centre for Human Drug Research in the Netherlands, each cohort was

Aspirin ‘benefit may outweigh harm’ in some elevated Lp(a) genotypes

Low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of CV events may benefit older adults with elevated lipoprotein(a)-associated genotypes, according to a new analysis of the ASPREE trial.
Elevated plasma Lp(a) levels confer up to a fourfold increased risk for CVD, with an estimated 20% to 30% of the general population affected, Paul Lacaze, PhD, associate professor in the department of epidemiology and preventive medicine at Monash University School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine in Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues wrote in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. However, no

Officials weigh vaccine options as death toll rises in Ugandan Ebola outbreak

Officials have begun assessing Sudan ebolavirus vaccine candidates as case and death counts continue to rise in the ongoing Ebola outbreak in Uganda that has now spread to two more districts in the country.
On Monday, the Ministry of Health in Uganda reported 36 cumulative cases — 18 confirmed and 18 probable — and 23 deaths, although only five are confirmed to be from Ebola. The Ministry reported on Sunday that of the cases recorded at the time, three were reported in Kyegegwa and one in Kassanda.
WHO previously said in a press release that it planned to deploy staff to the area,

Patient, physician education remains a barrier to home dialysis implementation

In order for patients to be ready to take on home dialysis, physicians must be properly trained and know how to prepare patients, according to a presenter at the International Conference on Dialysis.
“There certainly has been lots of attention on home dialysis editorials, and taskforces have written about the increase in Advancing American Kidney Health initiative in terms of increasing home dialysis adoption. As everyone's aware, there is a lofty goal of starting patients on preemptive transplantation as well as home dialysis therapy,” Christopher T. Chan, MD, FRCPC, director of

Second-generation customized technique may expand indications for cross-linking

MILAN — Second-generation customized cross-linking significantly improves vision in patients with keratoconus, according to Emilio Torres, MD, PhD, speaking at the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons meeting.
“In PACE, which stands for PTK-assisted customized epi-on cross-linking, we use more riboflavin and a greater amount of irradiation over specific areas of the cornea to selectively flatten them and regularize the cornea in a customized fashion,” he said.
The first patients treated so far at the ELZA Institute in Zurich showed good regularization and